How to integrate results from the sustainability screening is discussed further below. You're looking at OpenBook,'s online reading room since 1999. The present committee’s evaluation of how best to integrate risk assessment and other sustainability tools and methods is based on a consideration of four major factors: 7For an examination of recent coalitions between businesses and NGOs, see Grayson and Nelson 2013. approach has as a component the identification of stakeholders interested in a particular program or action during the scoping process after a decision has been made to perform some level of sustainability assessment. is now widely used around the world. Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things. 2010. London: Earthscan. A similar characteristic is present in sustainability tools and methods, such as LCA, benefit–cost analysis, megatrend analysis, and data analytics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Health should be expressly included in the "social" pillar. If it is determined that this process should be undertaken, the screening tool could also provide some guidance on the appropriate analytical tools to apply and on the appropriate degree of depth and detail of analysis needed. The Sustainability Assessment and Management. In the dose response step, the level of exposure such as dose or air concentration is related to the level of adverse effect, such as the incidence of a health effect from an environmental exposure. An approach for assessing inequalities in environmental exposures has also been developed similar to one used to assess income distribution inequities (Su et al. Available: [accessed Apr. However, it is not always possible to approach these questions quantitatively. Evaluating Pollution-Related Risks and Risk-Reduction Opportunities Throughout an Entire Value Chain and Not Only for Individual Sources, In EPA’s history, there is precedent for this type of thinking, but it has had little application. Finding: An important step in the Sustainability Assessment and Management approach is an evaluation of present and future conditions to show that present decisions and actions are not compromising future human and ecologic health and well-being. OECD Environmental Outlook to 2030. EPA is a lead agency in many interagency forums, including science and technology for environment, natural resources, and sustainability in which science and technology priorities, budgets, and programs are assessed and aligned with policy priorities. Global Deployment of Geothermal Energy Using a New Characterization in GCAM 1.0. Other challenges with applying life-cycle analysis in a sustainability context involve decisions on where to set system boundaries and what to assume about future technologies. To be successful, the overall sustainability process will probably involve a high degree of collaboration, including federal partners, state and local governments, as well as the private sector, nongovernmental organizations, and other stakeholders (NRC 1996, IOM 2009). Sci. 19, 2011]. View our suggested citation for this chapter. It is desirable to have relatively transparent methods that can be easily explained and where the results of the analysis can be effectively communicated to decision makers. Rogner, A. Sankovski, M. Schlesinger, P. Shukla, S. Smith, R. Swart, S. van Rooijen, N. Victor, and Z. Dadi. decisions will have high impact for all three pillars—social, environmental, and economic—and involve a variety of statutes. Toward Reform of Program Evaluation: Aims, Methods and Institutional Arrangements. Finally, the projections of impacts on ecosystem services include impacts on provisions, regulation, support, and cultural services. By Cority. Transitioning from a “pollution source” to a “value chain” unit of problem formulation and analysis will provide EPA with important insights into how pollution is created and distributed. 1998b. The Sustainability Framework outlined in this report contemplates that EPA will involve stakeholders at appropriate times throughout the process. (Recommendation 7c). The objective of the sustainability impact assessment, in contrast, is not only to minimize the environmental impact but also to optimize a particular decision’s contribution to sustainability (Gibson 2005). Embedded in the general Sustainability Framework recommended by the Committee on Incorporating Sustainability in the U.S. EPA is an approach to incorporating sustainability to inform decision making. Questions could arise that would require some additional analysis as well as follow-up with various stakeholders and collaborators. Climate change and health costs of air emissions from biofuels and gasoline. May 2009 [online]. Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Sustainability Concepts in Decision-Making: Tools and Approaches for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency examines scientific tools and approaches for incorporating sustainability concepts into assessments used to support EPA decision making. This report examines both currently available and emerging tools, methods, and approaches to find those most appropriate for assessing and/or evaluating potential economic, social and environmental outcomes within an EPA decision context. MOTIVATIONS FOR LEADERSHIP BY BUSINESS, NONGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS, AND GOVERNMENT. EPA quickly concluded that such a mandate could not be successfully achieved by focusing on petroleum refiners alone, so it convened a process through which many of the major participants in the fuels value chain contributed scientific data, modeling scenarios, and test results of varied fuel compositions and emission performance of various families of fuels and vehicles. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis will be required. 30(5):879-887. EPA’s history contains many examples of its application of convening authority, including voluntary initiatives with companies to report reductions of high-priority toxic releases, acquisition of data from testing of high-production-volume chemicals, development of test methods for identifying endocrine-disruption potential, and conducting formal regulatory negotiations as a precursor to formal rulemaking on such issues as residential wood heaters, equipment leaks from chemical processes, and cleaner fuel development. © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. Smith. EPA. 27, 2011]. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. Schwartz, P. 1991. Econ. September 2009 [online]. Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. 2009). This evaluation can be assisted by identifying additional data to better characterize system linkages and responses in indicators other than those that are used to assess goals. Science 317(5835):201-202. This process of dialogue has reached the point where they are developing common solutions and advocating similar agendas for resolving global, regional, national, and local issues. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Life-cycle assessment is a “cradle-to-grave” analysis (or “cradle-to-cradle” ([McDonough and Braungart 2002]) of environmental impacts from production, use, and eventual disposal of a product. The suite of tools should include dynamic analysis that analyzes the consequences of alternative options through time (intergenerational component). (2002) also provided a conceptual framework and typology for the classification, description, and valuation of ecosystem goods, functions, and services. Res. Ecosystem-services valuation requires integration of ecological and other natural sciences (EPA SAB 2009). The distinctions made in administration of the environmental review process under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) provide an example of adjusting the depth of the analysis to the scale of the problem. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website. 4.7. Although discounting will account for the costs to present generations of providing protections, opponents of benefit-cost analysis perceive discounting as inconsistent with an environmental law’s forward-looking premise because the standard technique of constant exponential discounting can have a potentially large adverse effect on the perceived benefits—such as protecting against long-latency diseases like cancer—that aim to prevent future harm (Harrington et al. Cost-Benefit Analysis and the Environment: Recent Developments. Washington, DC: Island Press. Source: NRC 2011a. Our tools and methods combine intellectual and human challenges with an enjoyable training experience - along with the joy of making a meaningful difference in the world. Zerbe, N., and T. Dedeurwaerdere. Sci. 2002. Scenarios for Global Biodiversity. 2 The GRI is a “network-based organization that pioneered the world’s most widely used sustainability reporting framework. 2008b. That term refers to the utility of an analytic tool that is best suited and adapted to support decision-making (EPA 2014d, p. xii). The goal of a cumulative risk assessment in a community setting is to fully account for the combined effects of multiple exposures—chemical, biologic, psychosocial, and physical—on a community, a goal that cannot be achieved using standard risk assessment methodology (IOM 2009). Valuing the Protection of Ecological Systems and Services. MEA (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment). Available: [accessed June 8, 2011]. Embedded in the general Sustainability Framework recommended by the Committee on Incorporating Sustainability in the U.S. EPA is an approach to incorporating sustainability to inform decision making. 1-26 in Evaluation for the 21st Century: A Handbook, E. Chelimsky, and W.R. Shadish, eds. 43(20):7626-7634. Mace, T. Oberdorff, C. Revenga, P. Rodrigues, R.J. Scholes, U.R. Evaluation is useful in identifying best practices, reducing uncertainties, and identifying additional linkages. Integrated assessment models, such as the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), arose in the study of climate change, bringing together global circulation models and economic models to assess the probable benefits and costs of alternative energy- and climate-policy choices (Hannam et al. At the first level, evaluation should compare the observed response of the indicator (or associated metric) to the project goals. A series of briefing documents at a depth appropriate to the decision would probably be prepared to inform the decision making. Avoidance of significant adverse effects: No trade-off that involves a significant adverse effect on any sustainability requirement area (for example, any effect that might undermine the integrity of a viable socio-ecological system) can be justified unless the alternative is acceptance of an even more significant adverse effect. This list is not intended to be a comprehensive list of potential tools but rather a brief review of some important assessment tools. A typology for the classification, description and valuation of ecosystem functions, goods and services. Cronbach, L.J. Laws Ann. Stakeholder engagement is generally cited as one of the essential elements of a sustainability approach (Feldman 2002). Science and an EPA mission statement. Standard-setting is a core role of EPA, not merely through the implementation of its statutory authorities but through collaborative efforts with other organizations to address the suite of sustainability challenges related to its mission. 1983. • The initiation of cross-statutory or multisector initiatives that aspired to identify and manage tradeoffs among statutes to maximize both environmental protection and economic efficiency. The environment provides the air we breathe, the water we drink, and the food we eat. Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Environmental, social, and monetary effects are significant mainstays of sustainability … Pp. The quick scan process can determine whether the project is sufficiently large to establish a presumption of possible impacts on one or more pillars of sustainability, to determine the range and magnitude of potential impacts, and to identify which pillars will have large. The following sites provide guidance to a range of tools and techniques to engage people and mobilize evidence in complex settings involving multiple stakeholders. Classically, risk assessments for human health endpoints involves four major steps: a hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposures assessment and risk characterization (NRC 1983, 1994, 2009; EPA 2005). Ready to take your reading offline? To produce 13.23 billion gallons, assuming 2.8 gallons of ethanol per bushel of corn, requires 4.725 billion bushels, or 37.95% of total corn production. Burden of argument on trade-off proponent: Trade-off compromises that involve acceptance of adverse effects in sustainability-related areas are undesirable unless proven (or reasonably established) otherwise; the burden of justification falls on the proponent of the trade-off. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2007. Econ. Turner, A.D. Jones, M. O’Hare, and D.M. (70 reviews) Cority's Sustainability Solution provides clients with a … OECD. 3Examples of such reports include City of New York 2014; IPCC 2014; World Economic Forum 2014. agencies and private-sector organizations need not only to revise policy frameworks but to recast their own institutional capabilities, resilience, and assessment and implementation tools in a clear and predictable manner that is consistent with their missions and responsibilities. Nrc 1999 ) extent feasible reduced environmental impacts compared with fossil-fuels change, can be produced domestically with reduced... 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